The colored fragment of your eyes is called the iris. While few people have blue eyes, others have green or brown. Some are more blue-green or hazel. Everyone’s eye color is a bit different. Here’s what you need to know.
How Eye Color Is Determined?
In the early period, people used to believe that they can predict the eye color of children by gazing at the eye colors of the parents and grandparents. Based on the belief that brown eyes are a very dominant trait and blue is recessive, you could get a satisfactory idea of what color the child’s eyes would be.
But today, we know that eye color isn’t as easy to guess as looking at the parent’s or grandparent’s eyes. While genetics takes part in, eye color is not the work of a single gene. Instead, several genes contribute to governing eye color.
Your eye color is the outcome of the amount and diffusion of melanin (a natural pigment) in your irises. Brown eyes have more melanin in them than blue, and there are many different shades in between.
Darker eyes tend to be more presiding, but as different genes factor in, this doesn’t mean darker colors always win out.
So, while two brown-eyed parents are more probable to have a child with brown eyes but the result is not assured. Nor will it always be true that a child of one brown-eyed and one blue-eyed parent will have brown eyes.
Roundabout half of all people in the U.S. have brown eyes. The color is also more pervasive in areas of the world with warmer or comfy climates. People with blue eyes have no melanin in the stroma that is the front layer of the iris.
The lack of pigment in the eyes causes light to scatter or disperse when it hits them, making the irises appear to be blue.
Green eyes are one of the rarest. Roundabout 2-3 % of the world’s population has green eyes. The color originates due to melanin and the effect of light diffusion when it hits the eye.
People born with albinism (this condition affects the retina and the nerves behind the eyes. Because this thing looks blurry because the retina doesn’t develop the way it should) often have little or no melanin in their bodies.
Due to this they typically have light blue eyes. In very uncommon cases, they may have crystal clear irises, which can make their eyes look pink or red but it’s infrequent.
Can Eye Color Change?
Eye color can change in infancy. Many babies are born with blue eyes that eventually become a different color as the melanin develops in their stroma. Their eye color generally becomes permanent approximately when they are around 1 year of age.
Generally, it’s uncommon for eyes to change color. They may appear to change their color when your pupils dilate or shrink, but this occurs because the pigments in the irises come together or diffuse apart.
In some cases, eye color can darken slightly during puberty or in pregnancy, or when you reach your later years.
Health Problems That Can Affect Eye Color
In a few cases, health problems can also affect or change the color of your eyes.
Trauma. An injury or trauma to the eye can result in damage to the iris. Tissue loss can also alter the appearance of the eye’s color and iris.
Neurofibromatosis. Neurofibromatosis is a condition that affects the nervous system of the body. It can cause small size tumors to grow on nerve cells throughout the body and may lead to small-sized nodules on the irises. While they do not affect the vision but they can alter the color of your eyes.
Uveitis. Uveitis is a condition that describes a group of inflammatory diseases that cause swelling around or mostly in the eyes. It can affect your vision and even lead to loss of eyesight. You may also notice changes in the color of the affected area of the eye.
Cataracts. A cataract is a condition that results in the clouding of the eye’s lens, which is behind the pupil. While cataracts do not affect the iris directly but they can change the appearance of the affected area and its eye’s color, making it appear cloudy or milky.
Cataracts are more common in older adults than is in later ages and can affect your vision. They can be treated with minor surgery.
Your eye color depends upon the amount of melanin in the iris. Brown eyes have more melanin and are the most common color. The lower the amount of melanin in your eyes, the lighter they will be eyes color.
Your eye color is permanently set around the age of 3. There are some ways that you can artificially change your eye color, but they can also damage your eyes. Be sure to thoroughly research before doing to change your eye color.